Thursday, May 28, 2009

principle for sheela

Customer Service Principle #1:

· Customers should be valued as people, and shown courteous and concerned attention to their needs.

Customer Service Principle #2:

· Customers are Our Top Priority

Customer Service Principle #3:

· Services should be Customer Centered

Customer Service Principle #4:

· The Customer is Always the Customer

Customer Service Principle #5:

· The Customer Deserves Value

Customer Service Principle #6:

· Each Customer is Unique

Customer Service Principle #7:

· Customers Deserve Honest Communication

Customer Service Principle #8:

· Teamwork is Vital

Customer Service Principle #9:

· The Service Environment is Important

Customer Service Principle #10:

· The Service Process Should Make Sense

Sunday, April 19, 2009

How to Become a Vampire


Although rarely reported, vampirism is spreading. Vampires are in our theaters, in our bookstores, on our televisions and-- most importantly-- in our homes. Once feared, Vampires have become desirable and beloved individuals. But how does one become a Vampire?

To understand that, one must traverse back in history to look at the mythology of Vampires. If you believed that they were created by Bram Stoker, author of Dracula, or began with Vlad the Impaler, you'd be wrong. The legend of vampires is much older than that. In fact, some believe that they may have originated at the same time as Adam and Eve.

One word of warning, methods discussed here should not be attempted. There is no proof that they could bring a person back from the dead, and unsuccessfully attempting one of these methods could have deadly consequences. So keep in mind that everything included in this guide is for research and informational purposes only. Be careful!

What is a Vampire?

To begin, we must start by defining vampires. This is no easy task. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word vampire can be traced back to the early 1700s.1 However, the traits that define a vampire have changed through the ages.
Originally, vampires were undead creatures that escaped from their caskets. Some believed that this was caused by an evil spirit possessing the victim's corpse.
Eventually, the beliefs were complicated by the notion that vampires drink blood. At that point, other myths that involved with drinking blood were connected to vampire mythology.

Today, the only characteristic that seems to connect various offshoots of vampirism is the need for blood-- they may or may not be demons or even dead.2
For the purposes of this page, vampires may be reanimated corpses, drink blood or both.

Being Born a Vampire

Since vampires are frequently thought of as being dead, it might seem strange to suggest that someone can be born a vampire or be predisposed to becoming a vampire after dying.

According to South Slavic beliefs, children born or conceived between Christmas and Epiphany are more likely to become vampires.
In Romania, being born the seventh child is enough to make one a vampire if the previous six children were the same sex.
Being born the illegitimate child of parents who were themselves illegitimately conceived.
Being cursed either in the womb or at birth.
Sometimes there were physical signs that indicated people who were destined to become vampires. According to Slavic folklore, children with red hair and blue eyes would become vampires. Luckily, dark hair and eyes were most common in that region. It was also believed that a child who possessed any of the following traits upon birth was destined to one day become a vampire:


An extra nipple.

Extra hair.

A tail.

A distinctive red birthmark.

Two hearts.

Missing cartilage in the nose.

A split lower lip.

A membrane, known as a caul, covering the head.

According to Romanian beliefs, a pregnant woman had to guard herself from specific things that could make her unborn child a vampire. These things included:

Having a black cat cross her path.

Not eating enough salt.

Being looked upon by a vampire or witch.

Giving birth prematurely.

Lilith and Cain

One of the origins of the idea that vampires are born and not made comes from Jewish texts. According to the story, Eve was not the first woman created by God. Instead it was Lilith. Unhappy with her life, she left the Garden of Eden. She then made a deal with the angels who were sent to retrieve her, resulting in her transformation into a witch and the mother of all demons. She later paired up with Cain, after he killed his brother Abel. Some say that vampires are the offspring of Lilith and Cain. Although this story is not mentioned in either the Bible or the Torah, it can be found referenced in the story of Beowulf.

Becoming a Vampire Through Actions

If you are not born with the predisposition to become a vampire, then there are certain actions or events that, when they happen during your life, are likely to make you a vampire after you die. Examples include:

Eating the meat of a sheep which was killed by a wolf.

Being weaned too early.

Breastfeeding after being weaned.

Stealing ropes that were used to lower a coffin into its grave.

Sinful Deeds

More commonly, the act which would destine you to become a vampire was something specific which the Christian church considered highly sinful. For example, anyone who was excommunicated would become a vampire because they were unable to receive the sacraments and would therefore die without receiving forgiveness for sins committed. A few other examples of this include:

Living an overall sinful or immoral life, such as a living as a thief, prostitute or murderer.

Dying unbaptized, according to Greek lore.

Desecrating a holy day.

Practicing black magic or witchcraft.

If you're a priest, taking Mass while "in a state of mortal sin."

Being cruel or violent during your life.

Werewolves have long had a connection with vampires. In fact, many believed that when a werewolf died, he or she became a vampire. This also held true for any people that the werewolf killed. Unlike common beliefs, those killed by werewolves would come back as vampires-- not werewolves.

Dying to Becoming a Vampire

Throughout Europe, the manner in which one died could cause that person to become a vampire. Part of this had to do with their beliefs about life and death. For example, according to South Slavic beliefs, the soul must remain on Earth for a certain amount of time. Therefore, if someone died before that time they were doomed to roam the earth as a vampire. Some of the many other ways a person could become a vampire by the way they died include:

Dying a premature death before being baptized.

Dying due to natural forces such as fires or drowning.

Being killed by an animal or another person.

Dying in childbirth.

Dying between Christmas and Epiphany, according to South Slavic beliefs.

Dying alone.

Committing suicide.

Suicide and Judas Iscariot

Committing suicide would also cause one to become a vampire because of how it was viewed by the Christian church. Because it was a sin against God, and because the sinner could not ask for redemption after committing the sin, it was unforgivable. Worse, a person who commits suicide cannot be buried on holy ground, making it even more likely to become a vampire. This belief was so strong that in England, people who committed suicide were buried at crossroads with stakes piercing their hearts.14
Interestingly, the belief that Judas Iscariot is the first vampire comes from this myth. According to the New Testament, after betraying Jesus with a kiss, Judas hung himself. Some believe that Judas did not die but rather was forced to live with his actions for eternity while thirsting for human blood. This myth is also likely the reason behind the idea that those who commit suicide return as vampires and why those with red hair become vampires (Judas' had red hair).

Becoming a Vampire After Death

Once you have died, you might think you are safe from becoming a vampire. Sadly, (or happily depending on how you view it), no. How a body is treated during the time after death and before burial can transform someone into a vampire as well. Some examples include:

If a cat or dog should jump over the body while it is lying in state before it is buried, according to Balkan folklore.

If a chicken flies over the body before it is buried.

Giving a person an object or shaking someone's hand over the body .

If the shadow of a living person falls onto the body.

Passing a candle over the body.

However, there were a few other things that, should they happen, would make a person return from the dead as a vampire. These things include:

Not receiving the proper religious burial rites.

If their brother sleepwalks.

If their murder has been unavenged.

If the wind from the Russian Steppes blows over their body.

In Romania, if they are buried face up.

If the corpse swells before burial.

This fear that a corpse would become a vampire was so common in the 16th and 17th century, that graves were often dug up so the bodies could be checked for signs of vampirism. Churches even documented some cases where corpses exhibited signs of being a vampire.

Depending on the mythology, the vampire may or may not be inhabited by the soul of the person who died. Sometimes, corpses were reanimated by demons. An example of this is the Indian belief of vetala, which were demons who possessed recently deceased bodies.

Becoming a Vampire Through a Bite or Blood

No page on how to become a vampire would be complete without discussing how a vampire's bite and blood can turn an otherwise normal human being into a vampire. It is also one of the more modern beliefs which has become so prevalent that it has overshadowed all the other traditional means of becoming a vampire. According to various beliefs, a person can become a vampire through blood or biting by:

Being bitten by a vampire and dying or nearly dying.

Receiving multiple bites from a vampire.

Drinking the blood of a vampire after being bitten.

These beliefs, although not created by, were hugely popularized by Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and the numerous books and movies which came after it. In fact, many beliefs about vampires can be traced back to that particular story, including the idea that vampires and the story of Dracula are both based on the Vlad Tepes, better known as Vlad the Impaler. In reality, Stoker only borrowed the name "Dracula" from Vlad.

Philosophy of the Vampire

Vampires are born out of a fundamental change which can occur in the physical bodies of creatures which possess a soul. In most mortals the soul is the fundamental source for action, creating the original impulses which eventually become the person's acts. It is also a passage through which the creature can gain a small amount of the infinite power underlying the universe, power which is necessary for the functioning of a self conscious being.

A vampire is born when a mortal creature undergoes a change which causes the sensual physical body to revolt against the soul, usually expelling it, and taking control of the creature. The actions of the being are then controlled by either the remaining physical brain, the remnant of the soul, whatever caused the expelling of the soul, or a conglomerate of these forces. It is this emphasis on the physical body to the exclusion of the soul, which causes many vampires to be obsessively sensual and addicted to their own suddenly intense perceptions.

There are many things which can cause a creature to become a vampire. These include certain forms of intimate demonic possession, various viruses, the casting of spells to become a vampire, or mental disease. Each of these causes has its own peculiar nature, and can result in very different outcomes for the victim.

The change into a vampire is almost always accompanied by physical changes in the creature's body. The most common of these is a removal of the ability to feel pain, and a fundamental change in their perception of the world. These are caused by the sudden lack of soul, which influences the way everything looks and feels. The immortality of the creature comes due to a perceptual change. The body in complete control of itself does not choose to harm itself with entropy, and so stops doing it. However it is the soul which provides a creature with true wisdom and this form of immortality almost always results in major psychological problems. While immortal, eventually almost all vampires end up committing suicide due to the pressure of their own thoughts.

Changes such as an increase in strength, the ability to fly, psychic and telekinetic powers, and magic abilities are fueled by a power source which accompanies the transformation. As such these abilities are dependent on the amount of energy within the being, and will be increased or decreased by this factor.

Energy is a major problem for vampires, who have to fuel a self conscious existence without the benefit of the soul's pathway to the infinite power source. If a demon initiates the change, then their inherent power will fuel the initial act. If the change occurs due to a mental problem, or a mental problem caused by a virus, then the remnants of the soul and the body itself will have to fuel the initial change. This often results in vampires of very low consciousness and power.

Later energies have to come from another source, as even the initial power of a demon can not fuel a conscious being for long. This power is often gained through the drinking of the blood or souls of other self conscious creatures. Unfortunately the drinking of a soul, or soul blood, will only give a creature a limited amount of energy, requiring that the vampire repeat this act on a regular basis to survive.

The need for energy can become an obsession in vampires, overwhelming any sense of control and self they may have once had. If the need becomes too great, it can utterly destroy whatever mind remains in the creature, turning them into a zombie.

Some experiments have been done with plasma, as well as nuclear and subatomic energy sources as a way of fueling vampires. This technology is still in its infancy however, and most of the vampiric test subjects claim that these methods are still too weak to effectively sustain them.


Intimate infection from a demon: When a demon infects a mortal in such a way that they bind with the physical body of the creature, they can often pry the soul out of control of the body and permanently remove it. The power of the demon fuels the initial removal of the soul, as well as the first few hours of action. After this, most vampires will require the blood or soul of other conscious beings. Over time the demon will become more efficient at extracting the energy from these sources, and will require less. However initially, the need will be quite great.

This method of infection can also be transmitted to other conscious beings through the sharing of blood. In this way the demon within the initial vampire can multiply itself. The power of the second vampire will be slightly less then its makers, however over time it will also increase. There is also some speculation that when the initial vampire is destroyed, if the demon is eradicated with it, that all of the vampires born of that demon will also be destroyed.

These vampires tend to be the most powerful, and possess the strongest attributes. This is because the energy of the demon fuels the initial transformation, and the first few hours of existence. The demon also helps the body to become accustomed to its new existence, and can synthesize the souls or blood of other creatures, making it a useable source of energy. They also make it easier for the body to tap into telekinetic, psychic, and magical powers, as well as the new physical power within its body.

Infection from a virus: Some viruses can cause a change in the body which destroys it in such a way that the soul fleas, but the physical brain retains some control over the creature's actions. Initially such beings will be extremely weak and may be mistaken for dead. However, if they gain a source of energy, and a way to synthesize it into something they can use, they may be able to cobble together a consciousness. Their energy source may be the blood or souls of humans, or might be some other form of magic or chemical energy.

These vampires are marked by weakness, and a lack of consciousness. They are often compared to zombies, with the main difference being that vampires do not seam to degenerate after the initial change, while zombies are in a constant state of decline.

Vampirism by mental disease - In rare cases a person's physical mind can become obsessed with the sensual body to such an extent that it begins to revolt against the creatures inner soul. This is usually a violent struggle, and can be very painful and difficult for the victim.

As the soul is removed the creature begins to require alternate sources of energy to fuel its consciousness. In these scenarios, blood or souls are as likely as any other source to become the fuel, as the creature does not possess the ability to synthesize blood into a useable form. Some cases have been observed where vampires of this type become voracious eaters, others draw their energy from fire, and others use magical means to fuel themselves.

Spells to become a vampire: There are many mystical methods which can be used to become a vampire. To find out more about them, click here.

For a brief background in magic, click here.


The greatest weakness vampire's face is their need for energy, often in the form of blood. Since consuming the blood and souls of conscious beings is generally opposed by the conscious beings themselves, vampires have a constant enemy that they are intrinsically tied to. They can't live with their prey, but they can't live without them.

If a vampire finds a way to synthesize enough energy to survive, they will usually develop a second problem. As a creature increases its ability to take energy from subtle existences such as life, they will become more sensitive to the energy in the world around them. Generally if the vampire becomes good enough at synthesizing energy from blood or souls to survive, they will also become so sensitive to energy that sources such as the sun and fire will be extremely harmful to them. This is why many traditional demon induced vampires, who enjoy instant acclimation to vampirism, also suffer from the inability to go out in daylight. However there can be a convergence point for some vampires where they become so good at synthesizing energy that their power increases faster then their bodies sensitive to light and heat, and they become impervious to them once again.


Spells to Become a Vampire

A vampire is a mortal creature that has for some reason rejected its soul, expelling it from and giving control of its actions to the sensual body, the source of the reaction, the remnants of the soul, or a conglomerate of all three. While the most common way to become a vampire is to be initiated by another vampire, or to become a source via demon possession or disease, there are also some magical methods which can be used.

To read a short background on vampires that will help you to understand the following information click here

To read a short background on magic that will help you to understand the following information click here


Natural magic uses the actual reality of the world to create similar effects in dissimilar places. Using these principals to become a vampire requires a shamanistic approach. In this method ritual and concentration are combined to try and commune with the universe in such a way that you gain an understanding of how to affect the change you want. In the case of a vampire you are trying to eject the soul from the body, while finding a new and viable source of energy. This is a difficult thing to accomplish, and can take many months or years to accomplish.

The rejection of ones soul from ones body by choice is theoretically impossible, so this method generally has to be preformed on others. The rituals used are very similar to those used to create a zombie, and often result in a creature with similar intelligence and lack of self will.

The specific actions and thoughts necessary to perform this act are going to be very specific to your culture and particular mind set. As such the best way to learn this procedure is to do it, spending hours in concentration, and using rituals which are meaningful to you to gain a better understanding of the truths of the universe around you. Some methods you may want to try are rhythmic dancing, transcendental meditation, the use of spiritual journeys or fasts, and most important a dedication to being more aware of the nature of your own soul, in order to gain a better understanding of your relation to the spiritual world. The use of a teacher or shaman will greatly speed this process up, as they will be able to evaluate you from their own more enlightened position, and determine the methods that would work best for you individually.

One thing to note is that when creating a vampire, it is not always necessary to infuse them with a need for blood. This illegal and dangerous habit is also very difficult to develop, as the synthesis of blood and or souls into life energy is very complex. It is often easier to create a vampire which is fueled by chemical or physical energy.


In the multi-verse theory of magic, existence is composed of an infinite number of universes, within which every possibility exists. The hallmark of this method is the use of perceptual changes in yourself, to try and enter a universe in which your desired effect is true. The more unlikely an event, the more obscure the universe it exists in, and the harder it is to get there.

Becoming a vampire with this method will require the use of deep meditation and or chanting. This process is necessary to change your own perceptions enough such that you actually begin to shift your physical being towards a universe in which you are a vampire.

In using this method it is important to keep your mind open and to be ready to believe in the possibility of anything. This has to be balanced with your ability to perceive the reality of the dimension you are in at any given time. Just believing you are a vampire is not enough, you actually have to change the way your eyes see things, and the way and your mind understands them.

As usual the methods which will work best are going to have to be individually tailored to your mind and situation. A teacher will help this greatly, because they will be able to evaluate you and make suggestions from a trained position relative to you. However, as you become more proficient at this method it may become difficult to remain in a dimension in which you know the teacher, and as such you may require several teachers over the course of your training.

As far as the drinking of blood, there are many dimensions in which you are a vampire that doesn't require blood and has found a much easier method of taking in energy. As such you should try and steer yourself towards these specific dimensions. This is for your own safety and ease, as murder is not acceptable in almost any society.


Sometimes force, or balance magic has been used to create an item which is very dense in energy and vampire consciousness. Vampire consciousness simply refers to thoughts or ideas about vampires, or thoughts of vampires. When this combination exists in an item, it may be used by a willing creature to invoke vampirism in their own bodies. There may be a word of power which is uniquely tied into the item and activates it, however generally they are used by concentrating on your desire. Occasionally these items are even powerful enough to be used to turn others into vampires, although this generally requires the use of someone with an extremely powerful or trained will.

There is also a theoretical possibility that a demon or spirit can give part of their power to a creature to allow them to change themselves into a vampire. This is different from regular demon induced vampirism in that the demon does not in whole become a part of the creature, but instead only a little bit of the demons power is used to initiate the reaction. This speculation has arisen because many demons have offered this power to humans and other creatures, in exchange for the use of the expelled soul. However in every reported case the demon has betrayed the person as soon as they agreed, taking not only their soul but their bodies and minds as well.

Friday, March 27, 2009

Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai


Tu Hi To Jannat Meri, Tu Hi Mera Junnon
Tu Hi To Mannat Meri, Tu Hi Rooh Ka Sukun
Tu Hi Ankhiyon Ki Thandak, Tu Hi Dil Ki Hai Dastak
Aur Kuch Na Janu Mein, Bas Itna Hi Jaanu..
(Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu) - 2
Sajde Sae Jhukta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu
Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu..

Kaise Hai Yeh Doori, Kaise Majboori
Mene Nazaron Se Tujhe Choo Liya
Kabhi Teri Khusboo, Kabhi Teri Baatein
Bin Maange Yeh Jahan Pa Liya
Tu Hi Dil Ki Ha Rounak, Tu Hi Janmon Ki Daulat
Aur Kuch Na Janu, Bas Itna Hi Janu..
(Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu) - 2
Sajde Sae Jhukta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu
Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu..

Vaasdi Vaasdi Vaasdi, Dil Di Dil Vich Vaasdi
Naasdi Naasdi Naasdi, Dil Ro Ve The Naasdi
Rab Ne... Bana Di Jodi.....
Vaasdi Vaasdi Vaasdi, Dil Di Dil Vich Vaasdi
Naasdi Naasdi Naasdi, Dil Ro Ve The Naasdi

Cham Cham Aaye, Mujhe Tarshaye
Tera Shaya Ched Ke Chumta..
O O, Tu Jo Muskaye, Tu Jo Sharmaye
Jaise Mera Hai Khuda Jhomta..
Tu Hi Meri Barkart, Tu Hi Meri Ibaadat
Aur Kuch Na Janu, Bas Itna Hi Janu..
(Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu) - 2
Sajde Sae Jhukta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu
Tujhe Mein Rab Dikhta Hai, Yaara Mein Kya Karu

Vaasdi Vaasdi Vaasdi, Dil Di Dil Vich Vaasdi
Naasdi Naasdi Naasdi, Dil Ro Ve The Naasdi
Rab Ne... Bana Di Jodi.....

in english

you are my paradise, you are my craving
you are what i pray for, you are what brings my soul peace
you are what cools my eyes to see, you are the footstep of my heart
i dont know about anything ellse but i do know
( in you i see God, o what should i do)-2
in an offering of love my head bows down to you, o what should i do
in you i see GOd, o what should i do

what kind of distance is this, what kind of helplessness
that i have to touch you with only my eyes
sometimes your scent, sometimes your words
without asking for it i have recieved the whole world
you are what lightens my heart, you are all the valueble things of lifetimes
i dont know about anything ellse but i do know
( in you i see God, o what should i do)-2
in an offering of love my head bows down to you, o what should i do
in you i see GOd, o what should i do

cham cham it comes, it makes me yearn,
your shadow bothersomely kisses
how you smile, how you become shy
is as if my God is spinning
you give me worth, you are my penance
i dont know about anything ellse but i do know
( in you i see God, o what should i do)-2
in an offering of love my head bows down to you, o what should i do
in you i see GOd, o what should i do

God has made this couple

Saturday, March 21, 2009

Tamil Sangams

The Tamil Sangams were legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Three assemblies are described, the first two of which were held in cities since "taken by the sea", and the third of which was held during the 4th century BCE in the present-day city of Madurai.
The Sangam period refers to the period from roughly 300 BCE to 300 CE, when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were created (also known as Sangam literature). However, the name Sangam and the associated legends probably derive from a much later period.
Whilst the legendary accounts are generally rejected as ahistorical, some modern scholars, such as Kamil Zvelebil, find a kernel of truth in them, suggesting that they may be based on one or more actual historical assemblies. Others reject the entire notion as a fabrication. Nevertheless, legends of the Sangams played a significant role in inspiring political, social, and literary movements in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century.

Sangam legends

Early literature from the pre-Pallava dynasty period does not contain any mention of the Sangam academies, although some early poems imply a connection between the city of Madurai, which later legends associate with the third Sangam, and Tamil literature and the cultivation of the language. The earliest express references to the academies are found in the songs of Appar and Sampandar, Shaivite poets who lived in the 7th century. The first full account of the legend is found in a commentary to the Iraiyanar Akapporul by Nakkīrar (c. seventh/eighth century CE). Nakkīrar describes three "Sangams" spanning thousands of years. The first Sangam is described as having been held at "the Madurai which was submerged by the sea", lasted a total of 4440 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera and Murugan. A total of 4449 poets are described as having composed songs for this Sangam.
The second Sangam was convened in Kapatapuram. This Sangam lasted for 3700 years and had fifty-nine members, with 3700 poets participating. This city was also submerged in sea. The third Sangam was purportedly located in the current city of Madurai and lasted for 1850 years under 49 kings. The academy had 49 members, and 449 poets are described as having participated in the Sangam.

Late legends say that the third Sangam was held on the banks of the sacred Pond of Golden Lotuses in Madurai

There are a number of other isolated references to the legend of academies at Madurai scattered through Shaivite and Vaishnavite devotional literature throughout later literature. The next substantive references to the legend of the academies, however, appear in two significantly later works, namely, the Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam of Perumpaapuliyūr Nambi, and the better-known work of the same title by Paranjothi Munivar. These works describe a legend that deals mostly with the third Sangam at Madurai, and is so substantially different from that set out in Nakkirar's commentary that some authors such as Zvelebil speculate that it may be based on a different, and somewhat independent, tradition. In Nambi's account, the 49 members of the third Sangam led by Kapilar, Paraar and Nakkīrar were great devotees of Shiva, numbered amongst the 63 nayanars. In Paranjothi's telling, Saraswati was cursed by Brahma to take forty-eight bodies (representing the forty-eight letters of the Devanagari script. The letters became men, and founded the Tamil sangam in the Pandyan kingdom. Shiva, in the form of Sundarar, became its president. Nakkirar himself is said to have later headed the Sangam, and to have debated Shiva. The Sangam is described as having been held on the banks of the Pond of Golden Lotuses in the Meenakshi-Sundaresvarar Temple in Madurai.
In contemporary versions of the legend, the cities where the first two Sangams were held are said to have been located on Kumari Kandam, a fabled lost continent that is described as the cradle of Tamil culture. Kumari Kandam supposedly lay south of present-day Kanyakumari District and, according to these legends, was seized by the sea in a series of catastrophic floods.

There has been almost no comprehensive archaeological or scientific research done into the legends of the supposed earlier literary academies. From the very little available archaeological and epigraphic evidence, the earliest Tamil kingdoms may have been established only in the 5th century BCE, long after the earlier two Sangams were supposed to have been held.
Some scholars, such as Kamil Zvelebil, take the view that assemblies may have been founded and patronised by the Pandian kings and functioning in three different capitals consecutively till the last sangam was set up in Madurai. Zvelebil argues that the appearance of the tradition in literary and epigraphical sources means that it cannot be dismissed as pure fiction. He suggests that the Sangam legends are based on a historical "body of scholiasts and grammarians 'sits' as a norm-giving, critical college of literary experts, and shifts its seat according to the geopolitical conditions of the Pantiyan kingdom."
In 470 CE, a Dravida Sangha was established in Madurai by a Jain named Vajranandi. During that time the Tamil region was ruled by the Kalabhras dynasty. The Kalabhra rulers were followers of either Buddhism or Jainism. The Dravida Sangha took much interest in the Tamil language and literature.[18] We can also find Jain names such as Uloccnaar and Maathirthan among the early poets. Jain cosmology and mythology are also found mentioned in the early Sangam poems.

Sangam literature

The earliest extant works of Tamil literature date back to the period between 300 BCE and 200 CE and deals with love, war, governance, trade and bereavement. The literature of this period has been referred to as The Sangam literature and the period in which these works were composed is referred to as the Sangam period alluding to the legends. Although the term Sangam literature is applied to the corpus of the earliest known Tamil literature, the name Sangam and the legend was probably from a much later period.
An accurate chronological assessment of literary works has been rendered difficult due to lack of concrete scientific evidence to support conflicting claims. Undue reliance on the Sangam legends has thus culminated in controversial opinions or interpretations among scholars, confusion in the dates, names of authors, and doubts of even their existence in some cases. The earliest archealogical evidence connecting Madurai and the Sangams is the 10th century Cinnamanur inscription of the Pandyas.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009


Friday, January 30, 2009


here is some beautiful paintings for a beautiful moment...........